Working abroad might affect your entitlement to receive unemployment security in Finland. While working abroad, as a rule, you belong under the unemployment security of your country of employment. While working abroad, you belong under the Finnish unemployment security only in the following situations:
- You are a sent employee from Finland.
- You work for the Finnish state in a Finnish representative office either as a member of the sent staff or as a person hired on the spot, to whom the Finnish legislation was applied to immediately prior to the employment
- You work as an official under Finnish government.
- You work for the Finnish armed forces / in non-military service abroad.
- You work as an employee for the EU and have decided, at the time of signing the employment contract, to belong under the Finnish unemployment security also while working abroad.
- You work on a ship sailing under an EU/EEA country’s or Switzerland’s flag and you live in Finland, where your employer resides as well and where your salary is being paid from.
- You work in service on a Finnish ship under the maritime legislation.
- You work on a foreign merchant vessel used for foreign transport and you have an additional maritime insurance in accordance with the unemployment security legislation.
- You are a member of a flight staff, whose home station is in Finland.
- You live in Finland and work in two or more countries in a way that a significant portion of your work (25 per cent or more) takes place in Finland. For example the travelling staff of a transportation company (truckers) belongs in this group.
- You live in Finland and work for multiple employers, of whom at least two employers’ home or place of business is situated in another member state and not one employer’s home or place of business is situated in your home country Finland.
- You live in Finland and are employed in two or more EU/EEA countries or Switzerland by such an employer who is situated outside the EU.
After your contract has ended and you become completely unemployed, you belong under the unemployment security of the country of residence. Your home country is the country, where you live permanently. However, if you do not return to your home country, you can apply for unemployment daily allowance in the last country where you worked. The precondition for receiving unemployment security usually is that you are available in the labor market in the country in which you apply for unemployment benefits.
Your entitlement to daily allowance is determined in different ways depending on whether or not the European Union’s social security legislation is applied to your employment. All those countries, for which the social security legislation of the European Union is not applied to, are called third countries. The European Union’s social security legislation is applied to EU and EEA countries and to Switzerland. The most pivotal EEC decrees that are applied include:
- the EEC decree on coordinating the social security systems 883/2004 (basic decree) and
- its enforcement decree 987/2009.
EU countries include: The Netherlands, Belgium, Bulgaria, Spain (including the Canary Islands), Ireland, the Great Britain (including Gibraltar, but not the Isle of Man and the Channel islands), Italy, Austria, Greece, Croatia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Portugal (including the Azores and Madeira), Poland, France (including Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion and the French Guyana), Romania, Sweden, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, Denmark (but not the Faroe islands and Greenland), Czech Republic, Hungary and Estonia.
EEA countries include: Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.
Switzerland applies EU’s social security legislation based on separate agreements.